luchecon (luchecon) wrote,
luchecon
luchecon

Индекс экономической свободы: степень обоснованности?

Хорошо, конечно, что в Беларуси больше экономической свободы, чем в Иране, Туркменистане, Бирме, Ливии, Зимбаве, Кубе и в Северной Корее.
Правда, по мнению сайта, 149 стран имеют более высокий индекс экономической свободы. Но, видимо, все зависит от способа расчета.  Возникли вопросы.
Под катом даю более подробный материал на эту тему по Беларуси.

Belarus's economy is 44.7 percent free, according to our 2008 assessment, which makes it the world's 150th freest economy. Its persistently low score has been blamed on the failure of post-Soviet reforms, and this year it experienced a further 1.8 percentage point decrease overall, primarily because of worsening trade freedom. Belarus is ranked last among the 41 countries in the European region.

Belarus is significantly worse than the world average in six freedoms but, because of moderate tax rates and tax revenues, does score above the average in fiscal freedom.

Belarus's economic institutions create major barriers to development. Its financial freedom, investment freedom, property rights, and freedom from corruption are 20–40 points below the world average. The government dominates the financial system and either owns or controls all but one of the 31 banks. Foreign investment in all sectors faces hurdles, from outright restrictions to bureaucratic incompetence. Weak rule of law allows for significant corruption and insecure property rights.

Background:
Belarus won its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 but remains close to Russia economically and politically. President Alexander Lukashenko, in power since 1994, declared himself the winner of the disputed March 2006 elections and changed the constitution, effectively allowing himself to be elected for life. The economy has deteriorated since 1995, when Lukashenko vowed to guide his country toward a statist model of "market socialism." The government claims that the poverty rate dropped to 12.7 percent (less than one-third of the 1999 level) in 2005 and that real GDP growth reached 9.9 percent in 2006. In reality, Belarus's statist economy and policy of international isolation have discouraged foreign investment and development of the high-tech sector.

Business Freedom - 58.6%

The overall freedom to start, operate, and close a business is constrained by Belarus's national regulatory environment. Starting a business takes an average of 48 days, compared to the world average of 43 days. Obtaining a business license takes more than the global average of 234 days. Burdensome and non-transparent regulations lead small and medium-sized private companies to concentrate in retail and catering, where relatively low costs prevent excessively high losses. Closing a business is also difficult.

Trade Freedom - 52.2%

Belarus's weighted average tariff rate was 16.4 percent in 2002. Extensive import restrictions and quotas, burdensome licensing requirements, and numerous government-provided subsidies add to the cost of trade. An additional 15 percentage points is deducted from Belarus's trade freedom score to account for non-tariff barriers.

Fiscal Freedom - 81%

Belarus has moderate tax rates. The top income tax rate is 30 percent, and the top corporate income tax rate is 24 percent. Other taxes include a value-added tax (VAT), an ecological tax, and a turnover tax. In the most recent year, overall tax revenue as a percentage of GDP was 20.6 percent.

Freedom from Government - 55.5%

Total government expenditures, including consumption and transfer payments, are high. In the most recent year, government spending equaled 38.5 percent of GDP. Large state-owned enterprises still generate considerable output, and privatization continues to be resisted.

Monetary Freedom - 66.2%

Inflation is relatively high, averaging 8.8 percent between 2004 and 2006. Relatively unstable prices explain most of the monetary freedom score. The government subsidizes many basic goods and services, sets prices of products made by state-owned enterprises, and regulates prices in the retail sector. An additional 15 percentage points is deducted from Belarus's monetary freedom score to adjust for measures that distort domestic prices.

Investment Freedom - 20%

There are significant restrictions on capital transactions. Foreign investment must be registered with the Minsk City Executive Committee and is allowed only on a case-by-case basis. Narcotic products, national security industries, and some infrastructure are exclusively state-controlled. Profitable and strategic sectors are often under the de facto control of executive-allied firms or the government. Belarus has a skilled workforce, but inefficient bureaucracy, corruption, contradictory and often retroactively enforced legislation, enforced charities, and concerted resistance to the private sector all serve to hinder foreign investment. The government has begun to take control of certain businesses, irrespective of foreign ownership. Foreigners may not own land. Capital transactions, resident and non-resident accounts, invisibles, and current transfers are subject to strict controls.

Financial Freedom - 10%

Belarus's financial system is influenced very heavily by the government. All but one of the 31 banks are owned or controlled by the state. The financial sector is dominated by a handful of commercial banks, four of which are Soviet-era specialized banks that account for three-quarters of commercial banking's in-sector capital. Laws are applied inconsistently and often disregarded. The central bank is controlled by the state as a conduit for government economic policies. However, the banking system is more stable and developed than those in many other CIS countries. Foreign banks face major impediments, and barriers to credit are high. Businesses have access to various credit mechanisms, but long bureaucratic delays make the effort almost worthless for smaller companies. The non-bank financial sector is small and inhibited by state intervention and irregular regulatory enforcement. The stock market is small and largely dormant, and the insurance market has stagnated.

Property Rights - 20%

The legal system does not fully protect private property, and the inefficient court system does not enforce contracts consistently. The judiciary is neither independent nor objective by international standards. The government has wide scope to interfere in commercial transactions. In 1997, independent lawyers were barred from practicing without a special license from the Ministry of Justice. Protection of intellectual property rights is weak.

Freedom from Corruption - 21%

Corruption is perceived as pervasive. Belarus ranks 151st out of 163 countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2006. Owners of import–export businesses in particular complain that corruption exists at every point in a transaction.

Labor Freedom - 62%

Belarus's labor market operates under relatively inflexible employment regulations that hinder employment creation and productivity growth. The non-salary cost of employing a worker is very high, but dismissing a redundant employee is relatively easy. The unemployment insurance system, funded almost entirely by employers with some government assistance, offers benefits that are approximately equivalent to 30 percent of an average worker's annual salary.

В общем, решайте сами, верить или не верить. Лично меня смущает оценка налоговой свободы в 81%, а также "In the most recent year, overall tax revenue as a percentage of GDP was 20.6 percent". Может, я неправильно понял? Совокупные налоговые поступления составляют только 20,6% к ВВП? Это так?!

Tags: Беларусь
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